Al-Idah <p>Al-Idah is an International peer reviewed, Open Access,HEC approved “Y” category, bi-annual research journal. Its domain is Islamic Studies&amp; theology and we encourage submissions related to the contemporary challenges by the Muslim Ummah. Our focus lies in the spreading of true progressive moderate and adoptive picture of Islam that embraces diversity and difference. The essence of Islam lies in peace and tolerance.</p> <p>More specifically, Al- Idah takes&nbsp;regular submissions from academic professionals and&nbsp;researchers&nbsp;belongs toUloom e Quran,Hadith and Rules of Hadith, Seerat e Nabvi,&nbsp; Jurisprudence, Islamic History, Comparative Jurisprudence, Comparative Study of Religion,, Anti Extremism, Social Sciences and&nbsp;related disciplines.</p> <p>With this aim the articles may be addressed to any related issues – social, economic, political, technological, theological- falling in the domain of theology and Islam. Our mission is to create awareness and spread the authentic teachings of Islam. Today Al-Idah is the luminary in the research world due to the acumen of its valued contributors and their high- quality research parameters that make it what it is.</p> Shaykh Zayed Islamic Centre, University of Peshawar en-US Al-Idah 2075-0307 The Meaning of "Munkar al- Ḥadīth" according to Imām Al-Bazzār “An Applied Comparative Study” <p><em>This comparative study focuses on the term "denounced (on the basis of weak narrator) hadith" as used by Imam Al Bazar in his Musnad in comparison to 18 other Hadith scholars to review scrutiny/validation of Hadith. Imam Al Bazar has used the given term in consonance with his ancestors. However his successors have considered this term specifically for the distrustful narrator who disagrees with the majority. All four grounds for denunciation of narration of Hadith i.e. a sole narrator, distrustful narrator, the doubtful one who disagrees with most of the other narrators and the one who narrates fabricated hadiths.</em></p> Muhammad Bin Maher Bin Muhammad El Mathloum Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah | Shaykh Zayed Islamic Centre, University of Peshawar 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 1 27 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.0596 The Causes of al-‘Ilāl According to Al-Bazzār in his Book al-Bahru’z-Zakhār “An Applied Study” <p><em>&nbsp;The traditionalists “Muhadditheen”have mentioned various grounds of inadequacy in narration of Hadith from case to case. This research work focuses on MUSNAD AL-BAZZAR of Imam Bazzar, a landmark work in the subject of validation of Hadith. This study is divided into three main parts: &nbsp;first, a brief introduction of the author and his book "Musnad al-Bazzar" is followed by a literature review and a discussion on the grounds of inadequacy </em><strong>أسباب الإعلال</strong><em> in narration of Hadith. The last part is a critique on Imam Bazzar’s work alongwith a comparison of his work with with that of the traditionalist ‘Muhadditheen’ and brings out distinctive qualities like uniqueness, illusion, defilement, divergences in attribution, interval, concealment and conduct in Imam Bazzar’s work.</em></p> Abdul Qadir F. Gorashi Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 28 46 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.619 The Methodology of Imām Muhammad Ibn Ibrāhīm al-Muqrī in Citing Mutūn in "al-Mu'jam." <p><em>"Al-Mu'jam"by&nbsp; Imām Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ,a prominent Muslim Scholar, is a key source of Ḥadiths. His methodology of a strict scrutiny of Asnad for collecting Hadiths is unique and testifies his scholarly disposition. This book has won an iconic place in the discipline of hadith for students and scholars alike. This study highlights the unique methodology of Imām Muhammad ibn Ibrahim in "al-Mu'jam".</em></p> Midhat zidan Salem abu Gholiba Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah | Shaykh Zayed Islamic Centre, University of Peshawar 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 47 66 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.528 The Quaid Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in Arabic Literature <p>The Arab traders introduced the people of the sub continent to Islam and Muslim civilization. The scholars of the two regions wrote books about each others’ civilization, history and other aspects which garnered a mutual interest between the two civilizations. A key result was that the Arab writers and poets wrote many books and eulogies about Pakistan, its problems, its cities and its famous personalities like Muhammad Ali Johar, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the like. This critical study not only surveys but also highlights the misconceptions found in literary works of Arab Scholars about historical facts concerned with political history of Muhammad Ali Jinnah.</p> Uzma Elahi Yaqoob Khan Marwat Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 67 81 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.516 Mawlāna Abul Kalām ‘Azād and his Efforts in Reforming and Developing the Curriculum of Dars-i-Nizāmī <p>The prime sources of Islam i.e. Quran and Hadith are in Arabic language hence it is crucial to win command over this language for Islamic studies scholars. The Arab scholars have done extensive work on various aspects of this language. The sub continent is no exception and a great many books related to Arabic language,grammar, prosody are written. Sheikh Nizam Uddin b.Allama Qutbuddin Sihalwi Ansai, the founder of Dars e Nizami (1161-1748 Hijri) had consciously included Arabic language books for the same purpose. A number of Persian books are also on the curriculum. Various scholars mention the need to revise the Dars e Nizami curriculum to tailor it to contemporary needs and requirements. This article offers a brief critical review of Allama Abu al Kalam’s proposed amendments in Darsc e Nizami in order to revitalize it and adapt it to modern day requirements.</p> Amanullah Yaqoob Khan Marwat Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 82 95 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.646 An Influential Teacher and Future Challenges <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper addresses a host of features and responsibilities of an effective instructor in the scenario of contemporary challenges and problems. The educationists need to better equipped and more professional to deliver the best possible education efficiently. They should be well-informed of the latest developments in their specialized area/discipline and should be engaged in curriculum design and decision-making process. This study focuses on effective modes of teaching and better communication/technology skills for modern day teachers. A conducive social environment is a prime pre requisite for a successful learning and teaching system.</p> Korchid Sadok Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 96 111 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.661 The Concept of Aqeeda Tawheed in the Poetry of Abdur Rahman Baba <p><em>Tauheed is a vital belief of Muslims and Muslims need to have a clear perception or understanding of Tauheed. An ordinary Muslim does not have sound understanding of Islam as he hardly avails any guided religious learning. Earlier on various reformers had risen from time to time to dispel confusion and false belief through their speeches, writings and publishing. Thus they preserved the beliefs of Islam in purity. One such custodian has been Abdur Rahman Baba, the Pashtoon Sufi Poet aka Rahman Baba. Rahman Baba was the poet of humane values as his poetry is based on Islamic teachings which encompass the most comprehensive humane values. He was a reformer and we need to revive his visionary message to revitalize the Ummah. He upholds Tauheed like none else in Pashto poetry.</em></p> Nasrullah Khan M.S. Abaseen Yousafzai Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 112 124 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.693 A Scientific and Research Review of the Principles of Imām Abu Hanifa and Imām Al-Bukhārī in Receiving and Accepting Hadith <p>Beside the four famous Aima there were other scholars with worthwhile contribution and influence in their contemporary periods but their works seem to have sidelined in the brilliance of the four prominent Aima e Kiram. Some of them have been great mujtahideens of their times with sizable number of followers. However, despite this, they have lost eminence today. Imam Abu Hanifa is regarded as the authority on matters of Hadith. This article aims to review the reception of Hadith by Imam Abu Hanifa(r.a) and Imam al-Bukhari(r.a) to dispel many misconceptions regarding these two great imams and their scrutiny of Hadith.</p> Zafar Hussain Haris ullah Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 125 132 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.642 Allāma Qastalānī – Life and Work <p>Allama Qastalani Ahmad bin Muhammad was a well-known figure amongst the scholars of 10<sup>th</sup> century. This article is an overview of his biography with a special focus on learning and teaching. His writings are diverse in range and are about Quran, Hadith, Tafseer, Seerah and mysticism which are really invaluable additions to these disciplines and turn him into a towering personality of his times.</p> Samina Saadia Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 133 143 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.691 A Scientific and comparative study of Four Schools of thoughts Regarding the Definition, Interpretation and Applied Forms of Nikāh. <p><em>Nikah</em> is a proper way of breeding human race on earth. From literary point of view the Arabic word <em>Nikah</em> conveys the meanings of merger, amalgamation, intermingling or welding together and alike. According to Islamic law and jurisprudence the word <em>Nikah </em>signifies an interrelationship between a male and female proceeded by a specific contract. This procedure is termed as “<em>Aqd e Nikah</em>” which is furthered by the words of <em>Ijab</em> and <em>Qabul</em>.The early Muslim jurists of four schools of thoughts produce valuable and comprehensive definitions and interpretation of the word <em>Nikah</em> with reference to its literal meanings. Its juristic application in the light of <em>Quran</em>, <em>Sunnah</em> and <em>Ijma </em>&nbsp;is present in detail. All the above definitions and interpretation have been referred to the original classical jurist literature of four schools of thought with correspondingthree applied forms i.e.<em>Nikah kitabiya</em>, <em>NikahMu’aqqat</em> or <em>Mutta</em>’ and <em>Nikah Shighar</em> have been taken as test cases that how the earlier jurists successfully went through the formation, embodiment, streamlining and shaping these according to Islamic law and jurisprudence.</p> Muhammad Ismail Mushtaq Ahmad Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 144 158 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.632 The Islamic Concept of Wealth Consuming and Its Limitations <p><em>All economic systems encourage judicious and fair use of money The overt materialization spurs economic activity (getting and spending)leading to an imbalanced unnecessary expenditure upon luxury items and alike.This paper delineates Islamic perspective of earning and spending in the light of Islamic teachings. Islam gives clear guidelines with categories, limitations and proper heads of expenditures. Further it encourages rational use of money and shuns extravagance. This study is based on the analysis of secondary sources to bring forth Islamic view of spending money.</em></p> Abdur Rasheed Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 159 169 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.519 A Research Review of the Takfir of Muslim States in the Light of Sharia <p>Takfir is a burning and sensitive issue of the day. As per Islamic Sharia only highly competent and established scholars may declare takfir on a nominated person. It seems justifiably prudent that if extreme care and caution is to be taken for individuals, then exercising the same practice on state or community level requires utmost scrutiny and judicious approach. Its importance may be gauged from the fact that one can find chapters written in the Islamic jurisprudence books(fiqhi books)on the subject of Dar-ul-Islam (land of Islam) and Dar-ul-Kufr (land of disbelief). This article aims to highlight the criteria as prescribed by Shaiah before pronouncing a community Dar ul Kufr in the light of the opinion of noted Muslim jurists.</p> Muhammad Saeed Syed Abd ul Ghaffar Bukhari Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 170 190 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.692 The Narrations of Sufyānaīn in Shahīh al-Bukhārī <p>Sahīh al-Bukhārī is considered one of the most authentic books in Hadith literature&nbsp; because Imām al-Bukhārī (d. 256/870) narrated ahādīth on the authority of a meticulous procedure and on the credit of the veritable and verifiable narrators. Sufyān al-Thawrī (d. 161/777) and Sufyān b. Uyaynah (d. 198/813) are topmost among the trustworthy and reliable narrators and are considered as mentors in Hadith and its sciences. Quite a sizable number of ahādīth are quoted in Sahīh al-Bukhārī on their authority. As the students of Sufyān al-Thawrī and Ibn Uyaynah usually refer to them by their names which makes it easier to access their narrations. However, there are a number of narrations in Sahāh al-Bukhārī that are ascribed by the common name Sufyān with no clue whether these narrations belong to Sufyān al-Thawrī or Sufyān b. Uyaynah. A consensus developed from the historical position is that Sufyān al-Thawrī is the preceptor of Sufyān b. Uyaynah. Hence whenever there are two intermediaries among al-Bukhārī and Sufyān, it would be al-Thawrī, and whenever there is one narrator between al-Bukhārī and Sufyān, it would be Ibn Uyaynah. This study aims to focus on the five hundred and seventy-eight (578) ahādīth in Sahīh al-Bukhārī that have been narrated on the authgority of fourteen (14) narrators from Sufyān al-Thawrī or Ibn Uyaynah. Moreover those narrators are referred to their source in sanad on Sufyān only. Consequently, the study is concluded on the way of differentiation between the narrations of both narrators and brings round the ahādīth belong to Sufyān al-Thawrī as well as the ahādīth belong to his student Ibn Uyaynah in Sahīh al-Bukhārī.</p> Alam khan Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 1 18 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.649 Islamic Law, Blasphemy and the Concept of Freedom of Speech: <p><em>Freedom of speech and personal freedom are the natural and constitutional rights of every citizen in any society. However, the interpretation of these rights varies from society to society according to their respective socio-cultural, politico-constitutional principles, and religious teachings. Human beings are confronted with paradox of blasphemy and freedom of speech. The misinterpretation of blasphemy and right to freedom of expression of opinion has created great stir in the circles of scholars at different periods and also resulted in the persecution of prominent scholars and other people. This paper highlights the status of freedom of speech, and its critical evaluation in Islamic Law so as to understand its concept of blasphemy, its teachings on freedom of speech, and on personal security.</em></p> Amir Ullah Khan Sana Ullah Muhammad Haroon Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 19 29 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.672 The Notion of Religious Freedom and Islam <p>Religious freedom is a contested notion in our modern times and has been the standard to judge any tradition or religion as rational and acceptable ideology. Islam is alleged to be a religion which puts limitation upon human freedom and thus an ‘outdated’ religion. But in reality, Islam is the religion allows and promotes religious freedom. The modern notion of religious freedom is considered to be introduced by ‘the West’ but rather this notion has been the key feature of Islam as a religion mentioned in Quran. Putting limitations on religious freedom and dissent of opinion is not innate in Islam rather it has been misinterpreted. Such misinterpretations have given a reason to the critics of Islam to charge it as an outdated and rigid ideology. This paper attempts to clarify this misconception with the help of examples from Quran. Islam offers full freedom and prohibits any kind of coercion in matters of faith.</p> Mohammed Shafiq Khadija Aziz Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 30 37 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.690 The Retributive Proportionality and Islamic Punishment of Diyyah <p><em>Western Penal theory of ‘Retribution’ is based upon the philosophy of proportional punishment for a crime. The research focuses on the practical application of a philosophical idea in the Islamic punishment of diyyah. The main findings are the perfect application of the element of retributive ‘proportionality’ in all diyyah laws. The proportionality proved to be the basic rule of diyyah punishment where the homicide along with the bodily harms are proportionally compensated with the principle amount of hundred camels, ten thousand silver dirhams or one thousand gold dinars keeping in view the utility or the number of body parts of that organ. The damage to entire body in the shape of death, complete damage to a sense, to an organ or its utility, is proportionally compensated with full diyyah however the organs having more than one part are compensated with the proportional amount to the number of that body part in human body which results in half diyyah for damage to one hand, leg, eye or eyebrow and quarter for each eyelid. In this way each organ, its utility or each sense is proportionally compensated with adequate and proportional diyyah amount.</em></p> Salman Farooq Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 38 50 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.667 Family Courts in Pakistan: <p>Family law in Pakistan underwent a fundamental change when the Family Courts Act, 1964 was enacted and family matters were entrusted to family courts instead of ordinary civil courts. Since then the family courts have been administering family law to provide ‘better remedies’ to women and children. This paper aims to highlight the objectives of enacting Family Courts Act 1964 and how does it regulate its own proceedings under the judicial structure. It is significant to examine that the provisions of (Civil Procedure Code, 1908) CPC are generally not applicable to the trials before family courts, however usually proceedings are more or less the same; yet, family courts have special powers to discover the possibilities of amicable settlement of family disputes. This paper investigates various procedures in several family issues like a suit for maintenance, dissolution of marriage, a suit for dower and other dowry articles, inheritance and custody of children. It also interrogates that how far the objectives of the said law are achieved and stresses that the milieu of the courts should also be affable for the visit of the child in the best interest and welfare of children and women.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Siddique Syed Naeem Badshah Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 51 60 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.703 A Review of Educational Views & Pedagogical Skills of Imam Abu Yusuf (738-798) <p><em>The study aims to discuss how eminent Muslim educationist and scholar, Imam Abu Yusuf incorporate educational setting with epistemological belief for the prospective teachers. The dilemma of Muslim world is the inadequacy of theoretical record of such proficient teacher and researchers. The main aim of the study is to examine Imam Abu Yusuf’s educational contributions, his teaching methodological implications in educational setting and his educational perspective with reference to his teacher and students.</em></p> Parveen Khan Hafiz M Inamullah Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 61 68 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.688 Remembering the Forgotten Differences of Men and Women: <p>Gender differences and their depiction has been a rich debate for last few decades in Gender Studies. &nbsp;The current paper aims at exploring differences between men and women To begin with Jordan Peterson’s claim that men and women are not the same and would not be the same; but it does not mean that women should be treated unfairly. Next gender differences in John Gray’s <em>Men are from Mars Women are from Venus</em> is discussed to explores differences between men and women in terms of language, psychology, stress handling. Lastly the gender differences are viewed from the Quranic perspective. The study concludes that man and woman are made to be different with distinctly different spheres of action and performance.</p> Muhammad Farooq Athar Farooq Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 69 81 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.705 The origins of Islamic educational reformations: <p>Education in Islam is considered as an important and recommended practice ever since the advent of the Quran that took place in the seventh century. The primary aim of achieving Islamic education is to understand the preaching of Quran and spend one’s life most rightiously. The origin of Islamic Education is linked to madrassas where children pursue teachings of Quran. However, after the 9/11 incident Madrassas in Pakistan have come under scrutiny and several allies especially the U.S.has asked the government to re-form the Islamic education system in madrassas since they have been considered as the platform for producing terrorists and extremists. The Ulema in Pakistan have always played their proactive role in providing teachings of Islam to the children. However most of the madrassas have now been transformed into proper schooling system where religious education is integrated with modern education. In this study, Ulemas’ role has been reviewed and their extensive domain from a common man to dignitaries has been reviewed. The study highlights their constructive role in society.</p> Waqar Un Nisa Faizi Naeem Butt Copyright (c) 2020 Al-Idah 2020-12-25 2020-12-25 38 - 2 82 91 10.37556/al-idah.038.02.544